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《以斯拉记》 - 被掳、归回、重建(一)

第十九课 - 建殿工程受拦阻(五)

经文:拉五:1 - 17

主旨:

建殿工程停工约十五年后,被掳归回的犹太人有上帝的先知在那里帮助,再次起来动手建造耶路撒冷上帝的殿。当时河西的总督达乃(Tatnai)和示他波斯乃(Shethar-boznai)上本奏告大利乌王,请察巴比伦王的府库,看塞鲁士王是否有降旨,允准他们建造,并求王给予指示。

1。拉五:1 - 17  “1那时,先知哈该(Haggai)和易多(Iddo)的孙子撒迦利亚(Zechariah)奉以色列上帝的名,向犹大(Judah)和耶路撒冷(Jerusalem)的犹大人说劝勉的话。2于是,撒拉铁的儿子所罗巴伯(Zerubbabel the son of Shealtiel)和约萨达的儿子耶书亚(Jeshua the son of Jozadak),都起来动手建造耶路撒冷上帝的殿,有上帝的先知在那里帮助他们。3当时,河西的总督达乃(Tatnai)和示他波斯乃(Shethar-boznai),并他们的同党来问说:‘谁降旨让你们建造这殿,修成这墙呢?’4我们便告诉他们,建造这殿的人叫什么名字。5上帝的眼目看顾犹大的长老,以致总督等没有叫他们停工,直到这事奏告大利乌(Darius),得着他的回谕。6河西的总督达乃(Tatnai)和示他波斯乃(Shethar-boznai),并他们的同党,就是住河西的亚法萨迦人(Apharsachites),上本奏告大利乌王(Darius the king 或大流士一世 Darius I ,公元前522-前486年)。7本上写着说:‘愿大利乌王诸事平安!8王该知道,我们往犹大省(Judea)去,到了至大神的殿,这殿是用大石建造的,梁木插入墙内,工作甚速,他们手下亨通。9我们就问那些长老说:「谁降旨让你们建造这殿、修成这墙呢?」10又问他们的名字,要记录他们首领的名字,奏告于王。11他们回答说:「我们是天地之上帝的仆人,重建前多年所建造的殿,就是以色列的一位大君王建造修成的。12只因我们列祖惹天上的上帝发怒,上帝把他们交在迦勒底人巴比伦王尼布甲尼撒(Nebuchadnezzar the king of Babylon, the Chaldean,605-562BC)的手中,他就拆毁这殿,又将百姓掳到巴比伦。13然而巴比伦王塞鲁士(Cyrus the king of Babylon 或古列 Cyrus II,公元前559年-前529年)元年,他降旨允准建造上帝的这殿。14上帝殿中的金银、器皿,就是尼布甲尼撒从耶路撒冷的殿中掠去带到巴比伦庙里的,塞鲁士王从巴比伦庙里取出来,交给派为省长的,名叫设巴萨(Sheshbazzar),15对他说:可以将这些器皿带去,放在耶路撒冷的殿中,在原处建造上帝的殿。16于是,这设巴萨来建立耶路撒冷上帝殿的根基。这殿从那时直到如今,尚未造成。」17现在王若以为美,请察巴比伦王的府库,看塞鲁士王(Cyrus the king)降旨,允准在耶路撒冷建造上帝的殿没有。王的心意如何,请降旨晓谕我们。’”

《新译本》:1那时,哈该先知和易多的儿子撒迦利亚先知奉以色列上帝的名,向在犹大地和耶路撒冷的犹大人传讲信息。2于是,撒拉铁的儿子所罗巴伯和约萨达的儿子耶书亚都起来,开始重建在耶路撒冷的上帝的殿,上帝的先知们和他们在一起,帮助他们。3当时,河西那边的总督达乃和示他.波斯乃,以及他们的同僚来到他们那里,这样问他们说:“谁下令叫你们重建这殿,完成这工程呢?”4他们又这样问:“负责这建筑工程的人叫甚么名字?”5但是上帝的眼目看顾犹大人的长老,以致总督等人没有阻止他们建造;直到这事奏告大利乌王,得着有关这事的回谕为止。6这就是河西那边的省长达乃和示他.波斯乃,以及他们的同僚,就是在河西那边的亚法萨迦人,呈给大利乌王的奏文副本。7他们在呈给王的奏文中这样写:“愿大利乌王万事平安。8奏知大王:我们去过这犹大省,到了伟大神的殿,见殿正用光滑石块修建,梁木插入墙内;这工程在他们手里进行得审慎而迅速。9于是,我们就这样问那些长老,对他们说:‘谁下令叫你们重建这殿,完成这工程呢?’10为了奏知大王,就问他们的名字,记录他们首领的名。11他们这样答覆我们,说:‘我们是天地之上帝的仆人,正在重建这多年以前已经建好的殿,就是一位以色列伟大的君王所建成的。12但因为我们的祖先激怒了天上的上帝,上帝就把他们交在迦勒底人巴比伦王尼布甲尼撒(Nebuchadnezzar the king of Babylon, the Chaldean)的手中;尼布甲尼撒就拆毁这殿,把人民掳到巴比伦去。13然而在巴比伦王古列元年(Cyrus the king of Babylon),古列王下令重建这上帝的殿。14至于从前尼布甲尼撒从耶路撒冷的殿里掠夺,带到巴比伦庙里的神殿中的金银器皿,古列王也从巴比伦的庙中拿出来,把它们交给一位名叫设巴萨(Sheshbazzar)的人,委任他为总督。15又吩咐他说:把这些器皿带去,存放在耶路撒冷的殿中;使上帝的殿在原来的地方重建起来。16于是,这设巴萨回来,奠立了在耶路撒冷上帝的殿的根基;从那时起,到现在一直在建造,还没有完成。’17现在王若是以为好,就请查考王在巴比伦的库房,看看那里有没有古列王(Cyrus the king)下令,重建这在耶路撒冷上帝的殿的谕旨,并请指示我们王对这事的旨意。”

KJV:1 Then the prophets, Haggai the prophet, and Zechariah the son of Iddo, prophesied unto the Jews that were in Judah and Jerusalem in the name of the God of Israel, even unto them. 2 Then rose up Zerubbabel the son of Shealtiel, and Jeshua the son of Jozadak, and began to build the house of God which is at Jerusalem: and with them were the prophets of God helping them. 3 At the same time came to them Tatnai, governor on this side the river, and Shethar-boznai, and their companions, and said thus unto them, Who hath commanded you to build this house, and to make up this wall? 4 Then said we unto them after this manner, What are the names of the men that make this building? 5 But the eye of their God was upon the elders of the Jews, that they could not cause them to cease, till the matter came to Darius: and then they returned answer by letter concerning this matter.  6 The copy of the letter that Tatnai, governor on this side the river, and Shethar-boznai, and his companions the Apharsachites, which were on this side the river, sent unto Darius the king: 7 They sent a letter unto him, wherein was written thus; Unto Darius the king, all peace. 8 Be it known unto the king, that we went into the province of Judea, to the house of the great God, which is builded with great stones, and timber is laid in the walls, and this work goeth fast on, and prospereth in their hands. 9 Then asked we those elders, and said unto them thus, Who commanded you to build this house, and to make up these walls? 10 We asked their names also, to certify thee, that we might write the names of the men that were the chief of them. 11 And thus they returned us answer, saying, We are the servants of the God of heaven and earth, and build the house that was builded these many years ago, which a great king of Israel builded and set up. 12 But after that our fathers had provoked the God of heaven unto wrath, he gave them into the hand of Nebuchadnezzar the king of Babylon, the Chaldean, who destroyed this house, and carried the people away into Babylon. 13 But in the first year of Cyrus the king of Babylon the same king Cyrus made a decree to build this house of God. 14 And the vessels also of gold and silver of the house of God, which Nebuchadnezzar took out of the temple that was in Jerusalem, and brought them into the temple of Babylon, those did Cyrus the king take out of the temple of Babylon, and they were delivered unto one, whose name was Sheshbazzar, whom he had made governor; 15 And said unto him, Take these vessels, go, carry them into the temple that is in Jerusalem, and let the house of God be builded in his place. 16 Then came the same Sheshbazzar, and laid the foundation of the house of God which is in Jerusalem: and since that time even until now hath it been in building, and yet it is not finished. 17 Now therefore, if it seem good to the king, let there be search made in the king's treasure house, which is there at Babylon, whether it be so, that a decree was made of Cyrus the king to build this house of God at Jerusalem, and let the king send his pleasure to us concerning this matter.

ESV:1 Now the prophets, Haggai and Zechariah the son of Iddo, prophesied to the Jews who were in Judah and Jerusalem, in the name of the God of Israel who was over them. 2 Then Zerubbabel the son of Shealtiel and Jeshua the son of Jozadak arose and began to rebuild the house of God that is in Jerusalem, and the prophets of God were with them, supporting them. 3 At the same time Tattenai the governor of the province Beyond the River and Shethar-bozenai and their associates came to them and spoke to them thus: “Who gave you a decree to build this house and to finish this structure?” 4 They also asked them this: “What are the names of the men who are building this building?” 5 But the eye of their God was on the elders of the Jews, and they did not stop them until the report should reach Darius and then an answer be returned by letter concerning it. 6 This is a copy of the letter that Tattenai the governor of the province Beyond the River and Shethar-bozenai and his associates, the governors who were in the province Beyond the River, sent to Darius the king. 7 They sent him a report, in which was written as follows: “To Darius the king, all peace. 8 Be it known to the king that we went to the province of Judah, to the house of the great God. It is being built with huge stones, and timber is laid in the walls. This work goes on diligently and prospers in their hands. 9 Then we asked those elders and spoke to them thus: ‘Who gave you a decree to build this house and to finish this structure?’ 10 We also asked them their names, for your information, that we might write down the names of their leaders.  11 And this was their reply to us: ‘We are the servants of the God of heaven and earth, and we are rebuilding the house that was built many years ago, which a great king of Israel built and finished. 12 But because our fathers had angered the God of heaven, he gave them into the hand of Nebuchadnezzar king of Babylon, the Chaldean, who destroyed this house and carried away the people to Babylonia. 13 However, in the first year of Cyrus king of Babylon, Cyrus the king made a decree that this house of God should be rebuilt. 14 And the gold and silver vessels of the house of God, which Nebuchadnezzar had taken out of the temple that was in Jerusalem and brought into the temple of Babylon, these Cyrus the king took out of the temple of Babylon, and they were delivered to one whose name was Sheshbazzar, whom he had made governor; 15 and he said to him, “Take these vessels, go and put them in the temple that is in Jerusalem, and let the house of God be rebuilt on its site.” 16 Then this Sheshbazzar came and laid the foundations of the house of God that is in Jerusalem, and from that time until now it has been in building, and it is not yet finished.’ 17 Therefore, if it seems good to the king, let search be made in the royal archives there in Babylon, to see whether a decree was issued by Cyrus the king for the rebuilding of this house of God in Jerusalem. And let the king send us his pleasure in this matter.”


在查考拉五:1-2节的时候,因为谈到两个先知(哈该和撒迦利亚)怎样鼓励和安慰被掳归回的犹太人重建圣殿,我已经用了三课(第十六,十七和十八课)拉拉扯扯地谈到这两个人的先知书,以及“旧约/两约之间的弥赛亚国观念,末世以色列国的复兴和基督教的末世观”。现在我要和大家回到正题:

圣殿的根基是在归回后第二年二月(538/537BC),由所罗巴伯/耶书亚动工兴建(拉三:8);根基立定(拉三:11)后,当他们要继续建殿工程的时候,魔鬼就激动“犹大和便雅悯的敌人”,使他们的手发软,扰乱他们“于是,在耶路撒冷上帝殿的工程就停止了,直停到波斯王大利乌第二年。(Darius I or Darius the Great,或大利乌一世,522BC-486BC))”(拉四:24),换句话说,建殿工程停工了15/16年(538/537BC-522/521BC )(拉四:24)。


经过了两位先知的鼓励,他们“都起来(再次)动手建造耶路撒冷上帝的殿”(拉五:2)结果怎样?

“3当时,河西的总督(governor)达乃(Tatnai)和示他波斯乃(Shethar-boznai),并他们的同党来问说:‘谁降旨让你们建造这殿,修成这墙呢?’4我们便告诉他们,建造这殿的人叫什么名字。5上帝的眼目看顾犹大的长老,以致总督等没有叫他们停工,直到这事奏告大利乌(Darius),得着他的回谕。6河西的总督达乃(Tatnai)和示他波斯乃(Shethar-boznai),并他们的同党,就是住河西的亚法萨迦人(Apharsachites),上本奏告大利乌王(Darius the king 或大流士一世 Darius I ,公元前522-前486年)。。。”

谁看到犹太人再动手建殿呢?是不是十五年前的同一班人呢?在拉四:1 只说:“犹大和便雅悯的敌人,听说被掳归回的人为耶和华以色列的上帝建造殿宇。。”所以我们不知道他们是谁。在拉四:7-10 告诉我们上本控告犹太人的是省长利宏(Rehum the chancellor)、书记伸帅(Shimshai the scribe)和他们的同党,这批人是属于亚达薛西王(Artaxerxes 465-425BC)在位时候的人,不是大利乌王时代的人。 根据历史学家(也是基督教护教学者) Edwin M Yamauchi,Professor Emeritus of History at Miami University 的著作《Persia and the Bible》(Baker Books 1996 年),犹大(Judah)是纳入波斯帝国河西其中的一省,Trans-Euphrates,意思是 across the river,亚兰文(Aramaic,拉四:8-六:18 和七:12-26是以亚兰文书写,书卷其余的部分是希伯来文)是 abar-naha

当时治理巴比伦和 Trans-Euphrates 的 Satrap(总督/省长) 是 Ushtannu ,所以达乃(Tatnai)应该是比 Satrap 低一级的官员,Pahat or Governor subordinate to the Satrap;而示他波斯乃(Shethar-boznai)则有波斯官衔 patifrasa or frasaka (英文 inquisitor or investigator 检察官)。(请参考第七课有关波斯行省和官衔的解释)

他们两人和其他同党来到所罗巴伯和耶书亚那里,问他们“谁降旨让你们建造这殿,修成这墙呢?”。这里的 to build this house, and to make up this wall (NIV to rebuild this temple and restore this structure) ,“wall”的
亚兰文 ‘uššarnā 指的是材料(material)和设备(equipment),所以当时重建圣殿的工作一方面在进行中,另一方面也在收集 建筑的材料。

“我们便告诉他们,建造这殿的人叫什么名字。上帝的眼目看顾犹大的长老,以致总督等没有叫他们停工,直到这事奏告大利乌(Darius),得着他的回谕。” --  十五年前犹大和便雅悯的敌人看到被掳的犹太人重建圣殿的时候,他们也来到犹太人的面前,说要参与一份:“请容我们与你们一同建造,因为我们寻求你们的神,与你们一样。自从亚述王以撒哈顿带我们上这地以来,我们常祭祀神。”(拉四:2)当时的所罗巴伯和族长回复,“我们建造上帝的殿与你们无干,我们自己为耶和华以色列的上帝协力建造,是照波斯王塞鲁士所吩咐的。”(拉四:3)接着我们就看见“那地的民就在犹大人建造的时候,使他们的手发软,扰乱他们。”现在十五年后大不相同了,被掳归回的犹太人得到先知哈该和撒迦利亚的鼓励和帮助,他们重新得力, 不轻易因受到威胁就放弃。还有,他们的敌人与以前不同,河西的总督(governor)达乃(Tatnai)和示他波斯乃(Shethar-boznai)没有禁止他们停工,表示官员们不认为这是造反的行动,他们只是上本奏告大流士一世(或大利乌王),等候王的指示。圣经说:“上帝的眼目看顾犹大的长老,以致总督等没有叫他们停工,直到这事奏告大利乌(Darius),得着他的回谕。”

顺便一提,第五章 2节是《以斯拉记》最后一次提到所罗巴伯的名字。


“6河西的总督达乃(Tatnai)和示他波斯乃(Shethar-boznai),并他们的同党,就是住河西的亚法萨迦人(Apharsachites),上本奏告大利乌王(Darius the king 或大流士一世 Darius I ,公元前522-前486年)。7本上写着说:‘愿大利乌王诸事平安!8王该知道,我们往犹大省(Judea)去,到了至大神的殿,这殿是用大石建造的,梁木插入墙内,工作甚速,他们手下亨通。9我们就问那些长老说:「谁降旨让你们建造这殿、修成这墙呢?」10又问他们的名字,要记录他们首领的名字,奏告于王。11他们回答说:「我们是天地之上帝的仆人,重建前多年所建造的殿,就是以色列的一位大君王建造修成的。12只因我们列祖惹天上的上帝发怒,上帝把他们交在迦勒底人巴比伦王尼布甲尼撒(Nebuchadnezzar the king of Babylon, the Chaldean,605-562BC)的手中,他就拆毁这殿,又将百姓掳到巴比伦。13然而巴比伦王塞鲁士(Cyrus the king of Babylon 或古列 Cyrus II,公元前559年-前529年)元年,他降旨允准建造上帝的这殿。14上帝殿中的金银、器皿,就是尼布甲尼撒从耶路撒冷的殿中掠去带到巴比伦庙里的,塞鲁士王从巴比伦庙里取出来,交给派为省长的,名叫设巴萨(Sheshbazzar),15对他说:可以将这些器皿带去,放在耶路撒冷的殿中,在原处建造上帝的殿。16于是,这设巴萨来建立耶路撒冷上帝殿的根基。这殿从那时直到如今,尚未造成。」17现在王若以为美,请察巴比伦王的府库,看塞鲁士王(Cyrus the king)降旨,允准在耶路撒冷建造上帝的殿没有。王的心意如何,请降旨晓谕我们。’”

在这篇奏本里有几个波斯外来语(Persian loan-word)如 6节的“亚法萨迦人”,亚兰文 aparsekāyē’(NIV the officials of Trans-Euphrates 河西的亚法萨迦人)是波斯文 frasaka “investigator”(检察官);8 节的“甚速”(NIV diligence),亚兰文 ‘āsparnā’是波斯文 ‘asprnā (exactly);17节的“府库”(NIV royal archives),亚兰文 ginzayyā’是波斯文 ganza(treasury)。这样的用法是不足为奇的,因为河西的总督达乃(Tatnai)和他的官员都是波斯人。

与拉四:8-16 省长利宏、书记伸帅上奏亚达薛西王的奏本相比,不用我说大家也看得出两者的不同:拉四:12-16说:“王该知道,从王那里上到我们这里的犹大人,已经到耶路撒冷重建这反叛恶劣的城,筑立根基,建造城墙。如今王该知道,他们若建造这城,城墙完毕,就不再与王进贡、交课、纳税,终久王必受亏损。我们既食御盐,不忍见王吃亏,因此奏告于王。请王考察先王的实录,必在其上查知这城是反叛的城,与列王和各省有害。自古以来,其中常有悖逆的事,因此这城曾被拆毁。我们谨奏王知,这城若再建造,城墙完毕,河西之地王就无分了。”我在第十五课说这个奏本,

。。虽然字数很少,但用的却是“攻心之术”- 哪一个王听说自己管辖下的地方和臣民要反叛,不再进贡、交课和纳税,会置之不理的?若是如此,不是给别的地方和臣民立了一个榜样,依样画葫芦吗?所以,“敌人”的一句“河西之地王就无分了”,胜过长篇大论的奏本。

现在河西的总督达乃(Tatnai)的奏本完全不同,他没有用这种煽情的词句, 只是准确地指出事件的各种时间要素,把事件的发展清楚地向王陈述,求王给予指示。这个奏本完全符合今天报道重要新闻事件的基本要求:

1。愿大利乌王诸事平安!

2。王该知道,我们往犹大省(Judea)去,到了至大神的殿,这殿是用大石建造的,梁木插入墙内,工作甚速,他们手下亨通。

3。我们就问那些长老说:“谁降旨让你们建造这殿、修成这墙呢?”又问他们的名字,要记录他们首领的名字,奏告于王。

4。他们回答说:“我们是天地之上帝的仆人,重建前多年所建造的殿,就是以色列的一位大君王建造修成的。只因我们列祖惹天上的上帝发怒,上帝把他们交在迦勒底人巴比伦王尼布甲尼撒(Nebuchadnezzar the king of Babylon, the Chaldean,605-562BC)的手中,他就拆毁这殿,又将百姓掳到巴比伦。然而巴比伦王塞鲁士(Cyrus the king of Babylon 或古列 Cyrus II,公元前559年-前529年)元年,他降旨允准建造上帝的这殿。上帝殿中的金银、器皿,就是尼布甲尼撒从耶路撒冷的殿中掠去带到巴比伦庙里的,塞鲁士王从巴比伦庙里取出来,交给派为省长的,名叫设巴萨(Sheshbazzar),对他说:可以将这些器皿带去,放在耶路撒冷的殿中,在原处建造上帝的殿。于是,这设巴萨来建立耶路撒冷上帝殿的根基。这殿从那时直到如今,尚未造成。”

5。现在王若以为美,请察巴比伦王的府库,看塞鲁士王(Cyrus the king)降旨,允准在耶路撒冷建造上帝的殿没有。

6。王的心意如何,请降旨晓谕我们。


这个奏本大概是在 520BC 呈上给大利乌王(Darius I or Darius the Great,或大流士一世,522BC-486BC),因为拉四:24 说工程直停到波斯王大利乌第二年。

大利乌王看到这个奏本后会怎样回应,我们下一课再谈。


默想:

在1879年,考古学家在伊拉克地区(圣经中的巴比伦),发现了长仅九英寸的塞鲁士圆柱体。上面记载了波斯王塞鲁士在2500年前,允许一群人回到家乡,重建他们的圣殿。

 

尊重权柄


“现在王若以为美,请察巴比伦王的府库,看塞鲁士王降旨,允准……没有。”(拉五:17)


在公元前六世纪末,被掳归回的以色列民遭到当时的掌权者质疑。当时,犹太人渴望重建在公元前586年被巴比伦王国摧毁的圣殿,但辖区的总督却不太确定是否可行,因此他将此事上本奏告大利乌王(拉五:6-17节)。

总督在奏本内写道,他发现犹太人正在建造圣殿,因此向国王请示犹太人是否曾得到允许。在奏文中也提到犹太人恭敬地回复,表明他们确实曾得到先王塞鲁士王的允准。当大利乌王查证此事属实:塞鲁士王的确曾下旨允许他们建殿。所以大利乌王不但允准这事,而且还自王库拨出经费(见6章1-12节)。犹太人完成圣殿的重建之后,他们都“欢欢喜喜地”庆祝,因为他们知道上帝使“王的心转向他们,坚固他们的手,做以色列上帝殿的工程”(拉六:22)。

当我们面对问题需要解决的时候,应该以恭敬的态度呈明实情,相信上帝掌管万事,并为他的带领献上感恩,这便是尊崇上帝的名。

主啊!帮助我们以恭敬的态度面对各种情况,

我们需要你的智慧。

愿我们永远尊崇、信靠、赞美你!

尊重权柄使上帝得荣耀。

(取自《灵命日粮》2016年3月7日,作者:白德夫)


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